Calvatia rugosa

DSC_0018 (5).JPG

Calvatia rugosa The yellow staining puffball

Calvatia rugosa is an uncommon puffball and the only one I am aware of that stains yellow both on the flesh and the skin its also known as calvatia ruboflava. Its found in North america and also Australia and probably plenty of other places. I found it for the first time the other day and thought I would have a look and see what its got going for it. According to at least one source its edible when young but I had also heard reports that it is unpleasant. When I broke it open the flesh quickly turned yellow with the most intense colour change on the sterile base.

DSC_0062 (4).JPG

Calvatia rugosa, after a while the yellow fades on the sporemass but remains and intensify’s on the sterile base, the skin also stains when rubbed.

Calvatia rugosa is a small to medium sized puffball that can become quite wrinkled as it ages, its has a reddish skin made up of fine scales. The flesh is white but stains and bruises yellow, as does the skin. according to mushroom expert, the smell when young is not distinct but can become foul like rotting meat when mature, I did not wait to find out. The spore mass becomes orange brown to brown. This is such a unique puffball that i will not write a long description, QMS has one here. I decided to fry some up to have a taste, at first I thought it was burning very quickly but it was just turning bright orange!

DSC_0071 (2).JPG

Calvatia rugosa turns orange when fried

I tried a small bit, the taste and texture was not unlike other puffballs I have tried. Thinking it was ok I had some more, this time it tasted quite bitter. I have never come across a colour change like that so I decided to boil some up to see if it would leach out in water. It did. A few days before we had been talking about mushroom dyes and this seemed like it could work, so I Left it to my more artistic partner to experiment with. She used some water colour paper and a scrap of cloth. Below are the results of a double soak. No additives were used and the colour seems quite stable. Its likely that the colour could be intensified with certain additives but we were impressed with the results. I did a search and only one mention of this fungi being used as a dye by anyone else (listed under calvatia ruboflava).

DSC_0010.JPG

Paper and cotton dyed with the mushroom broth.

Advertisements

Amanita marmorata the marbled death cap

In Australia Amanita phalloides known as the Death Cap has achieved almost legendary status and is rolled out almost yearly by the media for their annual ‘don’t eat wild mushrooms’ article. Something that is perhaps less know is that Amanita phalloides is just one member of a larger group of amanitas know as section phalloideae with well over 50 members world wide, some contain amatoxins like Amanita phalloides and are deadly poisonous while a few are actually edible! The rest are somewhere in the middle with more work needed to determine their toxicity. I have been wondering for a while now how many varieties from section phalloideae are found in Australia, then the other day I was introduced to one that has been fruiting at my local nature reserve.

DSC_0022 (4).JPG

Amanita marmorata the marbled death cap

Amanita marmorata is a deadly poisonous member of section phalloideae that I have recently become acquainted with. Its not a common mushroom though I have found it a couple of times over the years but it was not until I came upon a facebook ID request about it, when a well known Canadian mycologist IDed the fungi in question I clicked on his link and quickly joined the dots. He later confirmed my mushroom as a. marmorata. I found it growing under coastal Casuarina with which it forms a mycorrhizal relationship. They have been fruiting regularly for some weeks and as I walk past them quite often I stop to have a look or take a photo. I brought one home and went thru the macroscopic traits, apart from the smell not matching the description it seems a good match (the smell may change with age). They are described as having a strong smell while my collection had almost no smell. Growing just a few meters away were some edible white agaricus mushrooms so it was entirely possible that someone (me) could have picked them along with a death cap or two for my lunch, luckily I don’t really like those little agaricus and I am usually quite diligent in checking my collections. It really made me realize the importance of being able to discern the different mushrooms to genus. Particularly the rather distinct amanita genus. The two links above have good descriptions of this mushroom.

DSC_0001.JPG

Amanita marmorata the marbled death cap

Eating death caps can lead to a rather drawn out and disturbing demise, if you make it through the first 48 hours a partial recovery may be made followed a few days later by kidney failure, sometimes the liver as well. Its estimated that just 30 grams of mushroom or 7mg of amatoxin is enough to kill an adult. Studies suggest the toxins are not absorbed through the skin so they can be safely handled without gloves, as can any other poisonous mushroom. I Have done a bit of research and so far, listed bellow, are the mushrooms from section Phalloideae that occur in Australia, this is not a full list and much more work can be done on Amanitas in Australia. There are also a number of deadly amanitas in south east Asia and china so its entirely possible that some of those occur here. For a full list of section Phalloideae follow this link. In Australia I can find only two that contain the deadly amatoxins.

Amanita marmorata the marbled death cap, known from many parts of Australia including NSW and Queensland and has been exported over seas. Deadly poisonous.

Amanita phalloides Is know from Canberra south into SA and Tasmania, its an introduced species often associated with oak trees. Deadly poisonous.

Amanita neomurina known from NSW and Queensland no information on toxicity.

Amanita austrophalloides Only know from a single collection with no information on location or toxicity

Amanita eucalypti Is known from WA, no information on toxicity

Amanita murinaster know from NSW and Queensland, unknown toxicity.

Amanita peltigera is known from WA and queensland No information on toxicity.

Agaricus aff. flocculosipes

DSC_0015 (3).JPG

Agaricus aff. flocculosipes

I found these mushrooms for the first time the other day at one of my usual haunts. Agaricus aff. flocculosipes is a member of section arvensis and has only recently been ‘discovered’ in Thailand and now thanks to DNA has popped up in Australia. This mushroom looks very much like agaricus augustus so its probably just been lumped into that label up until now by Australian mycologists, assuming that anyone in Australia has actually looked at this species.

DSC_0006 (4).JPG

Agaricus aff. flocculosipes, note the prominent floccules on the stipe!

One of the things that sets this fungi apart from augustus is the shaggy stem, these interesting woolly scales are known as floccules and as you can see even the large floppy ring and veil has the floccules on it. Agaricus aff. flocculosipes has brown scales on the cap which can be over 100mm across. The gills start out white before becoming light pink then eventually brown. These mushrooms were growing in the rain forest among native trees. They have a very delicate mushroomy smell with just a hint of almond or marzipan. The flavour is also delicate. I really enjoyed the flavour and texture of these mushrooms. There are some poisonous agaricus that look similar to these mushrooms, they are generally a bit smaller and often stain yellow in conjunction with an unpleasant smell. In fact when I found these there where some of the poisonous agaricus just a few meters away!

DSC_0010 (4)

Agaricus aff. flocculosipes

Update: I decided to get a sample sequenced. The DNA results are in as 99% Agaricus flocculosipes (MG270071).

Summer Puffballs: Australian Calvatia species

Australian Calvatia aff. cyathiformis

Australian Calvatia aff. cyathiformis at different stages of growth, to the left is the sterile base after all the spores have dispersed.

The calvatia genus comprises most of the largest puff balls in the world and in my opinion the best edible puffballs in the country. Australia has a handful of different calvatia species that range from golf ball size up to softball or bigger, over 150 mm across. They start out white, with or without a sterile base, The species in the photo above has the sterile base. As the puffball matures it becomes larger and softer and begins to change colour as the spore mass matures. The colour they change to and that of the mature spores along with the presence or absence of the sterile base are the ways the different species are differentiated visually.

DSCN0934.JPG

Calvatia aff. cyathiformis found in January in a sports field.

I have been unsuccessful in properly identifying the calvatia puffball I have found this season, its a bit of a odd one out. Generally calvatia species fall into two categories the ones that turn yellow or red then brown, the spores do the same ending up a mustard to olive-brown colour at maturity or the ones that turn purple then brownish, the spores end up bright or dull purple. The species I Have found turns slightly yellow then dark brown and ends up with a grey slightly woolly spore mass. I have been unable to satisfy myself as to its true identity, Its closest to c. cyathiformis but I’m not really sure. Wikipedia list 58 species globally, I can find  good reference to about 9 species in Australia tho I am skeptical about a few of them. The species are  c. craniiformis,  c. lilacina, c. rugosa, c. fragilis, c. candida and the three I’m not so sure about c. gigantea,    c. fusca and c. olba. As you can see from some of the links the details are sometimes a bit thin on the ground! All of them should be edible while they are young with firm white flesh the main factor will be their palatability. Some species are reportedly bitter while others may have a slight laxative effect.

Calvatia aff. cyathiformis.jpg

Calvatia aff. cythiformis maturing and the fully mature cross section, (bottom right) note the spore mass at the top and sterile base bellow, there is a slight membrane between them.

These puffballs start out white and round on top, pear shaped with the sterile base. The skin is leathery with a lizard skin sort of pattern of cracks or scales, this will vary a bit depending on weather conditions. As they mature the fruit body swells and flattens out somewhat, they also develop some folds and wrinkles. The biggest one I have seen was about 120 mm across. At maturity the skin becomes dark brown and begins to flake off exposing a second thin layer with the grey spore mass showing thru in cracks. The sterile base is quite prominent but smaller then some other species, the mature tissue is quite woolly and brown. The spore mass starts out pure white before becoming grey and powdery, it seems to have a slight woolliness to it. There is a thin membrane between the base and spore mass. I find these growing in grass in parks and roadsides some times with poorer soils. I have seen one patch forming a large fairy ring. Fruiting over summer and into early Autumn. There are a range of smaller white puff balls that grow in similar areas the most common species are Vascellum partense and some bovista species, these are also edible tho not as good. There are also the lycoperdon puffballs that grow more often in forested areas. The calvatia tastes like egg or potato when sauteed in butter. They should only be eaten while they are young and firm before they reach their full size. Once mature care should be taken not to inhale there spore dust. To see more of my puffball photos click here.

Update: I have had a sample of the puff balls sequenced, the results came back as a 98 percent match for Calvatia fagilis, which was unexpected. In my opinion a 98 percent match could mean these are a different species so as always more work needs to be done. C. fragilis is very closely related to c. cythiformis so i will just leave my original ID as is. I have since had another sample sequenced, it came back as 98% Calvatia cyathiformis (MF686508)

cropped.JPG

The calvatia on the left at the perfect age to eat. On the right is a large Vascellum partense, another more common lawn puffball.

Chlorophyllum molybdites: green-spored parasol

false parasol, green-spored parasol and vomiter

Some of the growth stages of Chlorophyllum molybdites aka the false parasol, green-spored parasol and the vomiter!

Chlorophyllum molybdites is one of the most common and widespread fungi in the warmer parts of the Australia. This mushroom is most often seen kicked to pieces, scattered across urban lawns and stomped onto roads. One of the most despised of all fungi and probably the cause of more mushroom poisonings then any other. Is there any redeeming features to this common toadstool or is it deserving of its fate, to be mowed to ground level then poisoned by the suburban lawn enthusiast, relegated to a blight on the emerald dream of a perfectly trimmed and manicured patch of turf, just that little bit greener and neater then those bastards across the street.

Chlorophyllum molybdites false parasol, green-spored parasol and vomiter

mature Chlorophyllum molybdites

While a chew then spit, taste test is considered safe enough for most fungi, it is generally a bad idea to swallow. Chlorophyllum molybdites if eaten raw can lead to a heroes journey, a trip to hell and back riding the porcelain bus all the way to the emergency ward. It won’t kill you but leads to severe gastrointestinal distress, vomiting, diarrhea, and colic. The symptoms can last from a few hours to a few days! In severe cases, an affected person may experience bloody diarrhea and hypovolemic shock (Berger and Guss 2005). I am unable to find what the exact toxin in this fungi is but it is probably a protein. Whatever the toxin is, it is worth noting that the effects can vary greatly from person to person and in mushrooms that grow in different climates and regions. The toxin seems to be affected by heat, and some say boiling the mushroom for 30 minutes can destroy the poison and make the mushroom edible. Cooking the mushroom will probably lessen the effects of the poisoning but is unlikely to completely prevent it. The mushroom is also likely to be toxic to dogs.

DSC_0038.JPG

Chlorophyllum molybdites and the classic green tinge on the gills.

This is not an easy mushroom to ID and is often mistaken for other edible fungi. It is not until the mushroom is mature that it gets the tell tale green gills, until that point the gills are white to cream sometimes with just a hint of grayish green. The mushroom looks and smells like it should be edible. The cap is convex, at first brown, as the mushroom expands the brown skin breaks into scales on a cream coloured second skin. At this stage it can be mistaken for the shaggy mane (Coprinus comatus). The cap expands into a classic mushroom shape before flattening out, covered with large or small brown scales.  At this stage it is easily confused with other Chlorophyllum and macrolepiota species. If the mushroom dries in the sun the cap becomes brown again. The fibrous stem is often quite short but can be quite long with a bulbous base, it has a double ring which is movable on the stem. the flesh is white but can stain red. the spore print can be almost white to an ugly olive green. Chlorophyllum molybdites is found growing in parks and lawns, on roadsides and in fields. It is found around human habitation. Another chorophyllum species that is most likely poisonous and occurs in the same habitats as c. molybdites is c. hortense, its a slightly smaller mushroom with a white spore print. The best available scientific paper on Australian macrolepiota and chlorophyllum can be found here. It is prudent for anyone interested in edible fungi to become familiar with these species.

Wine caps: stropharia rugosoannulata

Australian stropharia rugosoannulata

Australian stropharia rugosoannulata

Stropharia rugosoannulata has plenty of common names including the wine cap, king stropharia and the garden giant however many people just use SRA. This is a mushroom that lives with people, in many parts of the world, its a lover of wood chips and is probably becoming more common and widespread in Australia. Its one of the best edibles around and is easy to cultivate in outdoor patches as the name suggests it can be grown in the mulch of a garden and makes a fine companion to many veggies. Locally there are two species of stropharia that are edible, besides SRA there is a pure white variety. DNA was done on them both SRA came back a 100% match for the north american species while the white stropharia came back around 98% which probably makes it a different species . Their features and habitat are very similar.

stropharia rugosoannulata

Detail of stropharia rugosoannulata buttons

This mushroom grows quick and like many mushrooms its best eaten while young and fresh at the button stage while the gills are still white or light grey, as the mushrooms mature they can get very large, the gills become a deep purple, almost black, the spores are the same colour. As you can see in the photos they have a very distinct cog like ring, this is probably one of the best ID features, however it can fall off as the mushroom matures. The cap colour is quite variable, it can be deep red or paler like in my shots, these ones almost have fine pink scales on the cap and as the mushrooms mature the cap becomes white or tan however they can still have that deep red cap when they are large. The cap is slightly sticky when young. The flesh is firm, thick and white. The stem is fibrous and not hollow. The base is somewhat bulbous but there is no volva. They grow in a wide range of habitats, mostly near people in wood chips. They will also fruit in gardens, compost piles, disturbed soil and uncommonly in aged cow dung.

SRA.jpg

After three days the cap is over 180 mm across

There are a range of mushrooms that grow in similar conditions to SRA, beware of smaller mushrooms with red caps and always be sure to carefully ID your finds and be sure you have not picked any look a likes, multiple mushrooms species can fruit side by side particularly in wood chips. All these photos were taken in my garden, last season I found SRA fruiting in a massive pile of wood chips, I was able to clone them, make spawn then an outdoor patch using grain spawn and sugar cane mulch, less then six months later I give the patch a new layer of mulch, a week later mushrooms appeared.

DSC_0717

young fresh SRA

Sauted in butter with a little salt the texture and flavour are superb similar to button mushrooms but with a slight hint of potato. Any mushroom that grows around human habitation may have come in contact with toxic substances like herbicides or exhaust fumes. Its always worth considering the likelihood of contamination of the mushrooms before eating them. This is one I’m always on the lookout for. Its also a mushroom that will (hopefully) be a feature of my garden for years to come.

Cloud ears, jelly ears and wood ears. Auricularia fungi

Auricularia auricula-judae, Auricularia delicata and Auricularia cornea

Auricularia auricula-judae, Auricularia cornea and Auricularia delicata. Wood ear, cloud ear and jelly ear. Names are in order.

I have been spotting Auricularia fungi for years now but have never found the desire to eat them. They are however eaten with gusto in parts of Asia, at least a. cornea/ polytricha and a. auricula-judae. In fact they were an early export from Australia to China back in the 19th century. I am writing this because I find at least four distinct species of Auricularia locally and I think they are worthy of a mention even if they are about as appetizing as a fresh shucked sea urchin (I can still vividly remember gagging). I will admit that myself along with most of the internet are a bit handicapped when it comes to putting the different species in the correct box, my IDs are best guesses and could probably be improved on. The fact that these fungi fruit freely and often make them one of the most commonly seen edibles in this area. Perhaps after a sample I will become a convert, readily pontificating their health benefits (and mouth feel) to anyone who’ll listen. stranger things have happened. To the pan Jonas!! **groan**

Wood ear, auricularia auricula-judae

Wood ear, auricularia auricula-judae

First to hit the pan is the classic wood ear, auricularia auricula-judae. Fried on oil with a pinch of salt does little to improve the visual appeal, the smell is not to bad. The flavour is subtle but that mouth feel…ummmazing. The texture is half crispy half rubbery, if it was mixed in with other mushrooms and a decent sauce I might even eat it again. The Queensland Mycological society breaks this fungi into two separate species, looking at photos and books its difficult to come to any conclusions about  exactly whats what, Wikipedia lists  thirty species of auricularia globally so its easy to see how subtle differences are missed, they can be found with patience and a microscope, things I sadly lack. In China auricularia auricula-judae and the similar A. polytricha are a very popular fungi, over 1.5 million tonnes are grown annually, they have been cultivated for over 1000 years. They are eaten in soups for their texture and health benefits, its said they help with colds and fevers by reducing the heat in the body. Modern scientific studies show anticoagulant and antitumour properties in the fungi. They are eaten in many other parts of the world, the wikipedia article is worth a look for further information.

Cloud ear or hairy wood ear. Auricularia cornea

Cloud ear or hairy wood ear. Auricularia aff. cornea

DSC_0223 4.JPG

The second type of Cloud ear or hairy wood ear. Auricularia aff. polytricha

Next to meet my taste buds is a. cornea, these are similar but with more crunch, kinda reminds me of celery. These may in be the Auricularia polytricha mentioned above, at least they look the same, and the texture description matches. Qldfungi.org.au calls them a. cornea which is good enough for me, again there may be two species of hairy wood ear. I often find this fungus growing on dead tobacco bush (solanum mauritianum) Note the fine white hairs along the margin of the caps.

Auricularia aff. delicata, jelly ear

Auricularia aff. delicata, jelly ear

I can not find much information on the edibility of a. delicata, so I’m not going to recommend it as an edible but for the record I have fried some up and given it a chew, a very small piece. Its is similar to the others tho its thicker and more gelatinous. Think of a gummy bear sandwiched between two layers of cardboard. Qldfungi tells me there are two species or at least variations of a. delicata in Queensland. I have found at least four variation of this species, the colour along with other features tends to be very changeable. Some are almost white while others are rich brown. The colour also changes as they age, they tend to bleach out becoming paler, they can also swell after wet weather. Again it will take patience and a microscope to figure it all out. DNA would be another option tho some tests seem to support variations rather then multiple species. Above and bellow, the photos show a big difference in appearance, the specimens bellow are some of the best I have seen, with a slight hairy top and fine white hairs along the margin similar to a. cornea. Also note how different these two photos are to the sample of a. delicata in the right of the photo at the top of this post. All three photos are of fresh young fungi before they have become bleached or otherwise effected by the environment.

DSC_0124.JPG

Auricularia aff. delicata a hairy jelly ear

DSC_0420

Pelictania camylospora, a possible look alike.

There are a range of cup fungi mostly in the genus peziza and jelly fungi in the genus tremella that could possibly be confused with Auricularia species, so as always please be cautious and diligent with ID. Never eat a fungi without a positive ID and only eat a small amount the first time. I have put a bunch more Auricularia photos on Flickr including another freakish member of the Auricularia delicata clan.

The Hedgehog Mushroom: Hydnum Repandum

DSC_0089.JPG

The Hedgehog Mushroom: Hydnum Repandum

This is another great edible that is annoyingly uncommon. It is a mycorrhizal fungi that grows with some native eucalypts, so when found it should reappear every season as long as the host tree survives. I have only found them growing twice in the Autumn, both times it was in mixed eucalypt woodlands on a ridge. With the distinctive spikes instead of gills or pores these mushrooms are hard to mistake. The caps are meaty and brittle. The spines are also brittle, they have a mild pleasant smell and a great taste and texture when sauteed. Spines are not altogether uncommon in the fungi kingdom, several other fungi that are not edible could be mistaken for Hydnum Repandum, I have seen small black capped Phellodon niger as well as an unidentified white bracket fungi with spines. I have also heard of, but never found, an edible brown morph of Hydnum Repandum. If you find Hydnum Repandum mark the date and check back the following year. I rate these as one of the better edible mushrooms around.

Saffron Milk cap, Lactarius deliciosus

DSC_0067.JPG

Saffron Milk cap, Lactarius deliciosus

Saffron milk caps are one of the most commonly eaten mushrooms in Australia, people hunt them and restaurants have them on menus further south but just how common are Lactarius deliciosus in the sub tropics? Well the short answer is they’re not. Some are known to pop up on the plateau during Autumn and they can be found in a few places near the coast in winter. The problem is two fold, the weather is probably a bit hot and we lack the huge areas of pine plantation that can be found in other areas. For those of us with a spot I would say keep it on the down low! These are an introduced species that are most commonly found with pinus radiata and Pinus pinea however they can be found under other conifers with which they form a mycorrhizal association. A symbiotic relationship where the mushroom mycelium becomes entangled with the trees root system, fluids and nutrients are transferred and everyone involved finds the agreement to be of satisfaction.

DSC_0065.JPG

Saffron Milk cap, Lactarius deliciosus

Lactarius deliciosus are an easy species to ID with few look alikes, they are bright orange, the gills bruise a dark green when damaged. they have a carrot coloured milky sap that oozes from the cut flesh, the stems are short with a distinct pattern of darker orange blotches. the spore print is pale yellow. They last a long time once they are up so its easy to pick old mushrooms. Mushrooms are food for plenty of different critters, some visible, some not, I think its important to pick and eat only young fresh mushrooms, picked before they become infested with tiny creepy crawlies. Always carefully inspect and clean your harvest. Worldwide there are a number of lactarius species some of which are eaten and in Australia we also have a range of native lactarius of unknown edibility. L. deliciosus is another mushroom that I’m not overly excited by, they have great texture but I find the taste not to my liking. Many others go bananas for them so maybe I’m just a bit fussy.

Lycoperdon Puff Balls

DSC_0061.JPG

Lycoperdon Pyriforme growing with introduced pines

Lycoperdon Pyriforme and Lycoperdon Perlatum

Puff balls are quite common in the area, with one of the larger genus being lycoperdon. Lycoperdon puff balls can be distinguished by their upside down pear shape and the fine spines that cover their surface. The spines get darker as the fruit ages and can be rubbed off. They are safe to eat while they are young and fresh, its good to check the firmness of the fruit before picking. Slice them in half, the flesh should be firm and pure white. They start to go soft as the spore mass matures and edibility quickly declines. Never eat them after the flesh changes colour to yellow or brown and be careful of breathing the spore dust once they are fully mature.

Most white fleshed puff balls are considered safe to eat while young. Puff balls that have dark flesh should not be eaten, most of the ones I see have black flesh and don’t smell very appetizing. Its also important to remember that some mushrooms and stink horns start out as eggs that can look exactly like a puffball. Slicing them in half will show the mushroom to be or the dark gelatinous interior of the often bizarre stink horn. Many mushroom in the genus Amanita start out as volva eggs and some can be deadly including the infamous death camp, amanita phalloides.

DSC_0191.JPG

Lycoperdon Perlatum growing in native forest

I am not a huge fan of the flavour of cooked lycoperdon puff balls, I have tried both species fried in butter with a little salt, they are not bad just not great either. However like most new foods an appreciation may develop over time or with the right recipe. To see all my puffball photos follow this link.